What is it?
葡萄糖胺sulphate and glucosamine hydrochloride are nutritional supplements. Animal studies have found that glucosamine can both delay the breakdown of and repair damaged cartilage. The results for the use of glucosamine for骨关节炎混合，效果的大小适中。有证据表明，最近的试验和使用高质量方法的试验不太可能表现出好处。关于盐酸葡萄糖胺的试验的证据是稀缺的，并不令人信服。
- Family:Nutritional supplement
- 科学名称：葡萄糖胺sulphate, glucosamine hydrochloride
- Other names:GS、氨基单糖、硫酸单糖,chitosamine, D-glucosamine
葡萄糖胺is found naturally in your body. It plays an important role in making glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins, which are essential building blocks of many parts of your joints, including ligaments, tendons, cartilage and synovial fluid. It’s been suggested that the way these parts of your joint are built and maintained contributes to the development and the progression of osteoarthritis.
Animal studies have found that giving glucosamine can delay the breakdown of cartilage as well as rebuild it.
Is it safe?
You should also be cautious about taking glucosamine if you have diabetes. Glucosamine might increase your blood sugar level and it may mean that you need to adjust your treatment to make sure it carried on working. There are several reports of interaction between glucosamine and anti-diabetic treatments. There are also some reports of possible interaction with chemotherapy drugs and drugs that lower blood cholesterol.
The number of participants in the RCTs included in this article ranged from 30 to 319. The trials lasted from three weeks to three years.
- In all 13 RCTs, the number and severity of side-effects reported by participants who were given glucosamine sulphate weren’t significantly different from those reported by participants who got the placebo.
- Trials that used one company’s (Rotta Pharm) supplement showed a positive effect for pain and function while those that used other brands didn’t.
The first trial involved 222 people over two years. The supplement didn’t show any beneficial effects, compared to a placebo, in relieving pain and improving function.
In this six-month trial, which included 318 participants, glucosamine had a clear significant benefit over a placebo and an even stronger effect than paracetamol in improving both pain and function.
60 participants with primary osteoarthritis in either one or both knees were randomised to receive a 1500 mg sachet of glucosamine sulphate or a placebo. After 12 weeks, there were no improvements in the placebo group but those who received glucosamine reported significant improvements in resting and moving pain, overall pain, stiffness and function. The improvements in these final three measures lasted for 20 weeks. In the treatment group, reported side-effects were heartburn and an all-over itch.
- One trial out of two found that glucosamine sulphate was significantly better than NSAIDs in improving physical function, while the second trial found that both medications had similar effects.
- Three trials out of four found that the number and severity of side-effects reported by participants taking glucosamine sulphate were significantly less than those reported by participants who were given NSAIDs.
葡萄糖胺hydrochloride trials for osteoarthritis
Two RCTs were conducted to evaluate the role of glucosamine hydrochloride in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. A review article also looked at its effects for hip and knee osteoarthritis.
- 49% of participants in the treatment group reported that they were ‘better than at the start of the trial’, but 40% of the participants who got placebo capsules said the same, which suggests that glucosamine hydrochloride isn’t significantly better than a placebo in improving osteoarthritis-related symptoms.
- In addition, this trial found that glucosamine hydrochloride wasn’t significantly better than the placebo in reducing pain, stiffness and physical function.
In the second trial, 1,583 people with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments once a day for 24 weeks:
- 1,500 mg glucosamine hydrochloride
- 1,200 mg chondroitin sulphate
- both treatments
The trial found the following results:
- Participants who received glucosamine hydrochloride or chondroitin sulphate didn’t report a significant improvement in pain, stiffness and physical function when compared to participants who were assigned the placebo.
Review article (2010)