What is azathioprine?
硫唑嘌呤，有时以其他名称（例如Imuran或Azapress）而闻名，是disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD)。它通过减少人体免疫系统的活性来起作用，这在某些情况下可能过度活跃。
硫唑嘌呤is usually given as tablets, taken once or twice daily. They should be swallowed whole and taken with or after food.
Your doctor will advise you about the correct dose, which will depend on how much you weigh. But you’ll usually start on a low dose of about 50mg, your doctor may increase this if necessary.
在开处方硫唑嘌呤之前，您的医生将订购一种称为TPMT的酶，也称为硫嘌呤甲基转移酶（硫代蛋白 - 蛋白 - 蛋白甲基 - 甲基蛋白 - 蛋白质反射率）。酶是您体内的蛋白质，可以帮助分解某些物质或化学物质。
If the TPMT result is very low, azathioprine may not be the right medication for you, and your doctor will discuss other treatment options.
- you have bone marrow problems
- you have infections that repeatedly come and go.
Before starting azathioprine you might need to be checked for previous hepatitis B or C infections, as this drug can increase the risk of these infections starting up again. If the tests are positive you may need antiviral treatment first.
Side-effects and risks
- nausea or feeling sick
- skin rashes
Because azathioprine affects the immune system, it can make you more likely to develop infections. It can also affect your blood count or liver. So you’ll need to have blood tests before and during your course of azathioprine.
你应该告诉医生或护士专家straight away if you develop any of the following after starting azathioprine:
- a sore throat, fever or any other signs of infection
- unexplained bruising or bleeding
- yellowing of the skin or eyes, this is known as jaundice
- any new symptoms that concern you.
联系您风湿病团队if you get chickenpox or shingles, or if you come into come into contact with someone who has them and you’ve never had chickenpox before.
These illnesses can be worse than usual if you’re on azathioprine. You may need treatment for them, and your azathioprine may be stopped until you’re better.
Tips to reduce your risk of infection
- Try to avoid close contact with people you know have an infection.
- Wash your hands regularly and carry around a small bottle of antibacterial hand gel.
- Keep your mouth clean by brushing your teeth regularly.
- Try to keep your house clean and hygienic, especially the kitchen, bathrooms and toilets.
硫唑嘌呤可以与用于治疗的药物相互作用痛风, such asallopurinol和febuxostat。It’s also known to interact with some medications used to control high blood pressure, such as warfarin. So make sure to discuss what medications you’re on with your风湿病团队, as they might suggest starting you on an alternative DMARD.
Check with your doctor or pharmacist before starting any new medications. And remember to mention you’re on azathioprine if you’re treated by anyone other than your usual rheumatology team.
Don’t take over the counter preparations or herbal remedies without discussing this first with your doctor or pharmacist as some of them could react badly with azathioprine.
The pneumonia (new-mow-nee-uh) vaccine and yearly flu vaccines don’t affect azathioprine and are perfectly safe to have while you’re taking it. It’s very important to have these to reduce your risk of infection.
Having an operation
If you’re due to have surgery, you might need to stop taking azathioprine or other drugs beforehand. You should speak to your doctor and surgeon about this first.
Alcohol and azathioprine can both affect your liver, so it’s important you don’t drink more alcohol than the government’s recommended limits.
Government guidelines say both men and women should have no more than 14 units of alcohol a week, and that you should spread these through the week rather than having them all in one go.
Fertility, pregnancy and breastfeeding
Men are also fine to continue taking it when trying for a baby.